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APPENDIX                                       243

2.  With Cl they form acid chloride and chlorinated acid,

(ClI3CO)oO  I- Cl, = C1I3COC1 + CHXi.COOH.

3.  With Na amalgam they are reduced to aldehydes.


Acetamide. The acid amides, or simply amides, corre-
spond to the amines, being ammonia in which hydrogen is
eplaced by acid radicals, and, like the amines, exist in the form
of primary secondary and tertiary amides. The following
methods are used for obtaining the amides-, in addition to that
described under th'j preparation :

i. The action of ammonia  on  the acid chlorides or  anhy-
drides (see Prep. 98, p. 209).

CILj.CO.Q  !- 2N1L, = CILj.CO.NlIo + NH4C1.

"'  2NII;J = CII:i-CO.NLI3 -I- CII3.COONH4.


2.  The action of ammonia on the esters (see Prep. 26, p. 102).
CIJ:,.C()OGjII5 -I- Nil,. = CILj.CONIIo + C2H5OII.
3.   Partial hydrolysis of the cyanides by cone, hydrochloric
or sulphuric acid,
The alkyl amides or substituted ammonias, with both acid
and alkyl radicals, also exist, and are formed by the first two
of the above reactions and by heating the salt of the amine
(see Prep. 54, p. 151). NII2GjlI0 = CII3.CO.NHGjHD + HC1.
CII:,.COOIT.NII3CttIIfl   = CII3.CONH.CBII0+ H.,6.     '     ^
Aniline acetate.                            AceLanilicle.
With the exception of formamide, which is a viscid liquid, the
majority of these compounds are crystalline solids. The lower
members are soluble in water, and they all dissolve in alcohol
or ether. Many of thorn distil without decomposition. They
are neutral substances uniting with both mineral acids and
a few of them with caustic alkalis and alkaline alcoholates
to form compounds which are rapidly decomposed by water.
The hydrogen of the amido-group is also replaceable by
R 2